Spinoza’s Metaphysics The Ethic approach to the Problem of Liberation
Benedict de Spinoza was one of the most popular rationalist philosophers and the most influential atheist in Europe in the early period. The definition of "Atheist' during his time (1632-1677) described a person who denies traditional Biblical views about God and nature. While Spinoza authored many books, one of his most important being: Ethics Demonstrated in a Geometric manner. The book incites for a radically new universe symbol to rise against the traditional Judeo-Christian picture. It angered many church and Synagogue representatives throughout his lifetime.
He uses a geometrical method to argue that a transcendent and personal God is non-existent, so is any immortal soul, and free will He further argues that there is no goal or purpose being the universe's existence and that the world, human beings included, follows similar set of natural laws, that every occurrence is bound to happen and also that the mind and body are one thing conceived in different ways. Spinoza's Ethics could be deemed provocative, although his arguments first appeared clear and compelling until philosophers and theologians read theorems based on them. Spinoza defines terms, giving his assumptions and derives what he called propositions, which are theorems that base his foundation. His work caused one of the most popular debates favoring traditional Biblical religion that living a moral life would be impossible without it The formal structure of ethics is broken into five, one of which is concerns God and Nature.
Spinoza quotes that God is infinite and necessarily existing. He argues that all things exist in God and he is the only substance. Spinoza further refers to these attributes as modes. Spinoza states that infinite modes which he defines as the laws of logic, the laws of physics and the truths of geometry. Finite modes are defined as disorders of God's attributes. Spinoza describes nature having two sides, one passive side and the other active. His overall view is that first, there is God and the rest follows which is nature nurturing. Everything else is assigned by God and his attributes which Spinoza calls nature- ‘natured’. Spinoza's ethics of man which is the second structure denies the existence of two substances. Human beings are a union of mind and body but Spinoza describes both of these as a single entity.
The third structure of ethics is on the human mind; knowledge. Spinoza analyzes the human being composition to show human being's relation to nature. He implies that human beings lack freedom because our events and minds are somewhat simulated in a serious of ideas from God. This has brought about serious implications since he tries to prove that our wills are predetermined thus, human beings lack free will Nature is the same everywhere and our feelings, love, anger, hatred etc are all controlled by a similar necessity. The final formal ethics structure is virtue and happiness. Spinoza describes virtue as the path to happiness. The third or ultimate knowledge is described as the knowledge of the reason or importance of things in regards to eternity rather than in a temporary aspect.